Diabetes & Endocrinology



Diabetes is a long-standing complex disease that causes high blood sugar level. Diabetes is due to the rise of blood glucose in the body, generally known as blood sugar or Hyperglycemia. When insulin production becomes inadequate into the body or when the body cells becomes unable to use the insulin accurately, then a patient is termed diabetic. Insulin is a hormone, a kind of protein, which regulates the level of blood glucose to its normal state. The body produces insulin in the pancreas and the hormone is concealed by its Beta Cells. Most of the patients referred as insulin dependent diabetic patients have Type 1 Diabetes.

Types of diabetes

Generally, diabetes is structured in Three types of blood sugar disease, type 1, type 2 and Gestational diabetes in pregnancy.

  • Type 1 Diabetes, where body simply does not produce insulin,

  • Type 2 Diabetes, where body cells become unable to coordinate with insulin, and pancreas fails to manufacture sufficient amounts of insulin to prevent the dysfunction.

  • Gestational Diabetes, which is extremely tough on women because the exhaustion of disease can affect both the mother and the unborn child.

Type 1 diabetes is responsible of about 10% overall diabetes, whether type 2 diabetes is responsible for 90% of diabetes and both are growing.

When we digest something, our body manufactures glucose or sugar and the pancreas instantly releases insulin at that point. Insulin plays a vital role in opening up the cells, so that glucose can gain access in our body and later the body uses it to produce energy, however, this function does not work properly with diabetic patients.


  1. Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG): Diabetes or pre-diabetes can be diagnosed easily with blood tests and symptoms, this test is recommended to commence in the morning in order to get reliable results. A fasting plasma glucose test can detect the level of glucose in your body, eating or drinking is strictly prohibited for at least 8 hours before commencing the test. Below the level of 99, your blood sugar is normal. If the level goes between 100 to 125, it is considered as pre-diabetes and if the level rises higher than 200, then you are suffering from diabetes.

  2. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: After a gap of 8 hours without eating, your blood sample will be taken and then after two hours, you will be allowed to drink glucose containing beverage to check the diabetes and pre-diabetes. This test is considered as more responsive than the FPG test. If the results show the glucose level between 140 to 200, then you have pre-diabetes and this impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is considered as the rising of type 2 diabetes.

  3. In an ordinary blood sugar test, a blood sample will be taken without considering the time of your last meal. This test along with Symptoms is enough to detect the existence of diabetes in patients. If a standard test indicates the blood sugar level equal or above 200, then FPG or OGTT should be recommended to confirm the type of Diabetes.

Causes and Symptoms

Diabetes happens due to the decrease of insulin level in your body. Everything we eat will turn into glucose and the pancreas produce insulin, which helps to manage the glucose level and convert the glucose into energy. In diabetes, the body cells do not respond effectively to the insulin or the pancreas do not produce insulin anymore.


  • Dehydration or excessive thirst

  • Frequent urination

  • Sudden weight loss

  • Exhaustion or Sleepiness

  • Vomiting

  • Blurred vision

  • Unexpected vaginal infection

  • Dry mouth

  • Excessive loss in healing cuts and bruises

  • Itching skin, especially in groin and vaginal area

  • Abdominal pain

  • Smell of acetone in breath

  • Hyperventilation

  • Increased urinating

  • Headaches

  • Feeling Dizzy

  • Yeast infection

  • Slow healing of cuts and bruises

  • Leg cramps

  • Pregnancy complications


Diabetes is a metabolic disease, which occurs due to the high level of blood glucose and can be treated with medication, exercise and dietary changes. Managing the level of glucose in the body is the primary target of diabetes treatment. Healthy nutrition is the most common part of all diabetes treatment, there is no special diet program available for diabetes patients.

  • Type 1 diabetes: Type 1 diabetes can be treated with balanced and nutritious diet, insulin and proper exercise. Diet should be low in fat, cholesterol and sugar. It can easily control the insulin level and increase the sensitivity of body cells to insulin.

  • Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes can be controlled with non-insulin medications, insulin, dietary changes and decrease of weight. Insulin can be delivered to the patient’s body through Syringe, pre-filled pens or Insulin pump in order to shrink the blood glucose level. Other methods include strengthening of insulin sensitivity, decreasing the production of glucose in the liver, increasing the production of insulin in the pancreas along with glucose flow and reducing the absorption of carbohydrates from the digestive tract.

Medications: Oral medication is recommended when these methods fail to control the growing glucose level and if the level still continues growing, then treatment with insulin becomes the final option. Some of the most common drugs used to treat diabetes are Metformin, Sulfonylureas, Meglitinides, Thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors.

Insulin therapy: It is also used when oral medication does not fulfill the requirement of insulin in the blood due to digestive issues. In such cases, insulin is injected into the bloodstream before the night.

Surgery: Diabetes can increase the body weight and fat, allowing the person to become obese due to high levels of sugar. Bariatric surgery is a weight loss surgery that returns the sugar level to normal and help cure diabetes.


Complications associated with wrongly managed diabetes:

  • Eye complication like Glaucoma, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy

  • Foot complications like ulcers and gangrene

  • Skin infection and skin disorders

  • Heart problems

  • Kidney disease

  • Hypertension

  • Gum disease

  • Hearing loss

  • Slow healing of wounds

  • Stroke

  • Sexual dysfunction

  • Digestive problems

  • Nerve problem, they don’t just affect your body parts but can also cause severe problems to your digestive and erectile dysfunction


While going through a diabetes treatment, you must follow the prescriptions in order to avoid treatment complications and achieve a fast recovery.

You must follow a planned regular meal recommended by your nutritionist. Consume the food which is low in fat, cholesterol, salt and sugar. Try some fiber filled food like rice, whole grain cereals, pasta and also attempt to develop an appetite for fresh vegetables and fruits.

Half the consumption of food and stay fit with prescribed workouts for at least 30 minutes a day. Avoid narcotic substances like alcohol, smoking, chewing tobacco as it can worsen the complications and causes bad effects on treatment procedures.

Take your medicines on a regular basis without skipping a single dose. Do not stop the medications, even if you can’t manage regular visits to your doctor. Check your skin and feet movements and blood glucose level regularly in order to keep an eye on blood sugar level, if it still keeps rising consult your doctor immediately.